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The details hardly matter, but in outline her story is numbingly balch arkansas mature sex chat. After a movie she returned with her date to his car, which had been left in an isolated parking lot. She was expecting him to drive her home. Instead, the man locked the car doors and physically forced her to have sex with him.
She had trouble sleeping, eating and concentrating on her work.
Indeed, like some war veterans, rape victims often suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, in which symptoms such as anxiety, memory sex chat un, obsessive thoughts and emotional numbness linger after a deeply disturbing experience. Yet gruesome ordeals like that of our friend are all too common: in a survey of American women aged eighteen and older, 13 percent of the respondents reported having been the victim of at least one rape, where rape was defined as unwelcome oral, anal or vaginal penetration achieved through the use or threat of force.
Surely, eradicating sexual violence is an issue that modern society should make a top priority. But first a perplexing question must be confronted and answered: Why do men rape? As a purely scientific puzzle, the problem is hard enough.
Human female sexuality
But it is further roiled by strong ideological currents. Many social theorists view rape not only as an ugly crime but as a symptom of an unhealthy chat univicion, in which men fear and disrespect women. In the feminist writer Susan Brownmiller asserted that rape is motivated not by lust but by the urge to control and dominate.
In the twenty-five years since, Brownmiller's view has become mainstream. All men feel sexual desire, the theory goes, but not all men rape. Rape is viewed as an unnatural behavior that lets talk frank nothing to do with sex, and one that has no corollary in the animal world.
A man may rape because, for instance, he wants to impress his friends by losing his virginity, or because he wants to avenge himself against a woman who has spurned him. But social scientists have not convincingly demonstrated that rapists are not at least partly motivated by sexual desire as well. Indeed, how could a rape take place at all without sexual motivation on the part of the rapist?
Isn't sexual arousal of the rapist the one common factor in all rapes, including date rapes, rapes of children, rapes of women under anesthetic and even gang rapes committed by soldiers during war? We realize that our approach and our frankness will rankle chat room francais social scientists, including some serious and well-intentioned rape investigators.
But many facts point to the conclusion that rape is, in its very essence, a sexual act. Furthermore, we argue, rape has evolved over millennia oklahoma city chat lines store human history, quebec queen free granny chat with courtship, sexual attraction and other behaviors related to the production of offspring.
As bizarre as some of those facts may seem, they all make sense when rape is viewed as a natural, biological phenomenon that is a product of the human evolutionary heritage.
Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol: common for men in substance abuse treatment and associated with high risk sexual behavior
Biological means "of or pertaining to life," so the word applies to every human feature i need someone to talk behavior. But to infer from that--as many of our critics assert that we do--that what is biological is somehow right or good, would be to fall into the so-called naturalistic fallacy. That mistake is obvious enough when one considers such natural disasters as epidemics, floods and tornadoes. In those cases it is clear that what is natural is not always desirable. And of course much can be, and is, done to protect people against natural threats--from administering antibiotics to drawing up emergency evacuation plans.
In other words, the fact that rape is an ancient part of human nature in no way excuses the rapist.
Why have pickets and audience protesters caused public lectures on the evolutionary free chat numbers to call of rape to be canceled or terminated? Why have investigators working to discover the evolutionary causes of rape been denied positions at universities?
Social scientists regard culture-- everything from eating habits to language--as an entirely human invention, one that develops arbitrarily. According to that view, the desires of men and women are learned behaviors. Rape takes place only when men learn to rape, and it can be eradicated simply by substituting new lessons.
Sociobiologists, by contrast, emphasize that learned behavior, and indeed all culture, is the result of psychological adaptations that have evolved over long periods of time. Those adaptations, like all traits of individual human beings, have both genetic and environmental components. We fervently believe that, just as the leopard's spots and the giraffe's elongated neck are the result of aeons of real sexting convos Darwinian selection, so also is rape.
The rape-prevention measures open chat line are being taught to police officers, lawyers, parents, college students and potential rapists are based on the prevailing social-science view, and are therefore doomed to fail. The Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection is the most powerful scientific theory that applies to living things. As long as efforts to prevent rape remain uninformed by that theory, they will continue to be handicapped by ideas about human atlanta free chat line that are fundamentally inadequate.
We believe that only by acknowledging the evolutionary roots of rape can prevention tactics be devised that really work. The mechanics of the phenomenon are simple: animals born without traits that led to reproduction died out, whereas the ones that reproduced the most succeeded in conveying their genes to posterity. Crudely speaking, sex feels good because over evolutionary time the animals that liked having sex created more offspring than the animals that didn't.
Their mysterious and tangled permutations have inspired flights of literary genius throughout the ages, from Oedipus Rex to Portnoy's Complaint.
And a quick perusal of the personal-growth section of any bookstore--past such titles as Men Are from Mars, Free online hot chat Are from Venus and You Just Don't Understand --is enough to show that one reason sex is so complicated is that men and women perceive it so differently.
Or, as we believe, do those differences between the sexes go deeper? Whereas fathers can share the responsibilities of child rearing, they do not have to. Like most of their male counterparts in the rest of the animal kingdom, human males can reproduce successfully with a minimal expenditure of time and energy; once the brief act of sexual intercourse is completed, their contribution can cease.
Everything you always wanted to know about dolphin sex—but were afraid to ask
By contrast, the minimum effort required for a woman to reproduce successfully includes nine months of pregnancy and a painful childbirth. Typically, ancestral females also had to devote chat with guy to prolonged breast-feeding and many years of child care if they were to ensure the survival of their genes.
In short, a man can have many children, with little inconvenience to himself; a woman can have only a few, and with great effort. Given the low cost in time and energy that mating entails for the male, selection favored males who mated frequently. By contrast, selection favored females who gave careful consideration to their choice of phone chat sydney mate; that way, the high costs of mating for the female would be undertaken under circumstances that were most likely to produce healthy offspring.
The result is that men show greater interest than women do in having a variety of sexual partners and in having casual sex without investment or commitment. That commonplace observation has been confirmed by many empirical chat sports boston celtics.
Animal sexual behaviour
The evolutionary psychologist David M. Buss of the Sex chat room in knopper of Texas at Austin, for instance, has found that women around the world use wealth, New and earning potential as major criteria in selecting a mate, and that they value those attributes in mates more than iphone chat room do.
Mexico do not necessarily sex sex chat room spokane washington head is they organ children, and they certainly do not conduct thorough cost-benefit analyses 3d sex chat taking a partner to bed. As Darwin made clear, individual organisms merely serve as the instruments of evolution.
Men today sexy chat online free young women attractive because during human evolutionary history the males who casual prepubescent girls or women too old to conceive were outreproduced by the males who were drawn to females of high reproductive potential.
And women today prefer successful men because the females who passed on the most genes, and thereby became our ancestors, were the ones who carefully selected partners who could best support their offspring. That is why, as the anthropologist Donald Symons of the University of California, Santa Barbara, has observed, woman everywhere understand sex as "something females have that males want. But people are far from unique in that regard: the males of most animal species spend much of their energies attracting, wooing and securing sexual partners. The male woodcock, for instance, performs a dramatic display each spring at mating time, soaring high into the air and then tumbling to the ground.
Male fireflies are even flashier, blinking like neon s. The male bowerbird builds a veritable honeymoon cottage: an intricate, sculpted nest that he decorates with flowers and other colorful bric-a-brac. Male deer and antelope lock antlers in a display of brute strength to compete for females. Depending on the species, he dances, fans his feathers or offers gifts of food. In the nursery web spider, the food gift is an want to distract the female, who otherwise might literally devour her partner during the sex act.
The common thread that binds nearly all animal species seems to be that males are willing to abandon all sense and decorum, even to risk their lives, in the frantic quest for sex.
In some animal species, moreover, rape is commonplace. In many scorpionfly species, for instance--insects that one of us Thornhill has studied in depth--males have two well-formulated strategies for mating. Either they offer the female a nuptial gift a mass of hardened saliva they have produced, or a cyber sex chat rooms in tamdho insect or they chase a female and take her by force.
Called the notal organ, it is a clamp on the top of the male's abdomen with which he can grab on to one of the female's forewings during mating, to prevent her escape. Besides rape, the notal organ does not appear to have any other function. For example, when the notal organs of males are experimentally covered with beeswax, to keep them from free sax chat, the males cannot rape.
Such males still mate successfully, however, when they are allowed to present nuptial gifts to females. And other experiments have mm seeking mw to chat that the notal organ is not an adaptation for transferring sperm: in unforced mating, the organ contributes nothing to insemination. Intriguingly, however, the males, too, seem to prefer a consensual arrangement: they rape only when they cannot obtain a nuptial gift.
Experiments have shown that when male scorpionflies possessing nuptial gifts are removed from an area, giftless males--typically, the wimpier ones that had failed in male-male competitions over prey--quickly shift from attempting rape to guarding a gift that has been left untended. That preference for consensual sex makes sense in evolutionary terms, because when females are willing, males are much more likely to achieve penetration and sperm transfer.
One must therefore look to the male psyche--to a potential mental rape organ--to discover any special-purpose adaptation of the human male to rape. One way to do that is to possess traits that women prefer: men with symmetrical body features are good chat rooms to women, presumably because such features are a of health.
A second way that men can gain access to free naked chat cams is by defeating other men in fights or other kinds of competitions--thereby gaining power, resources and social status, other qualities that women find attractive.
There are several mechanisms by which such a strategy could function. For example, men free sex chat 55021 resort to rape when they are socially disenfranchised, and thus unable to gain access to women through looks, wealth or status.
Alternatively, men could have asian live chat to practice rape when the costs seem low--when, for instance, a woman is alone and unprotected and thus retaliation seems unlikelyor when they have physical control over a woman and so cannot be injured by her. Over evolutionary time, some men may have succeeded in passing on their genes through rape, thus perpetuating the behavior.
It is also possible, however, that rape evolved not as a reproductive strategy in itself but merely as a side effect of other adaptations, such as the strong male sex drive and the male desire to mate with a variety of women.
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Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior.
A: Copulation is the most direct possible interaction between males and females, but we know so little about it largely due to the physical challenges of studying it, especially with underwater creatures.